Tehri Dam, Uttarakhand | Dams In India

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Tehri Dam

The Tehri Dam is India’s largest and one of the world’s highest reservoirs. It is a multipurpose stone and earth-fill reservoir on the Bhagirathi River near Tehri in Uttarakhand, India.

This is the largest reservoir of the hydroelectric system of THDC India Ltd. & The Tehri. Phase 1 was finished in 2006. The Tehri Dam maintains the irrigation dam, the municipal water source and the output of 1,000 megawatts (1,300,000 hp) of hydroelectricity. The 1,000 MW variable-speed storage system of the dam is under construction and scheduled for commissioning in May 2018.

Specifications
Country
India
Location
Uttarakhand
Coordinates
30°22′40″N 78°28′50″E
Status
Operational
Construction began
1978
Opening date
2006
Construction cost
US $2.5 billion
Owner(s)
THDC INDIA LIMITED
Dam and spillways
Type of dam
Embankment, earth, and rock-fill
Impounds
Bhagirathi River
Height
260.5 m (855 ft)
Length
575 m (1,886 ft)
Width (crest)
20 m (66 ft)
Width (base)
1,128 m (3,701 ft)
Spillways
2
Spillway type
Gate controlled
Spillway capacity
15,540 m3/s (549,000 cu ft/s)
Reservoir
Total Capacity
4.0 km3 (3,200,000 acreft)
Surface area
52 km2 (20 sq mi)
Power Station
Commission date
2006
Type
Pumped-storage
Turbines
Francis pump turbines
Installed capacity
1,000 MW (1,300,000 hp)
Max. planned: 2,400 MW

 History

The Tehri Dam project was finalized with a preliminary investigation in 1961 and a study-based 600 MW plant was designed in 1972. Construction started in 1978 following feasibility studies but had been delayed due to financial, environmental and social effects.

In 1986, the USSR provided technical and financial aid; however, this was interrupted years later with political instability. India was forced to take over the project and was first placed under the leadership of the Uttar Pradesh Irrigation Department.

But the Tehri Hydro Development Corporation was established in 1988 for the purpose of operating the reservoir, and the federal government was to provide 75% of the financing, with the state contributing 25%. Uttar Pradesh will fund all of the project’s irrigation.

Technical description

The Tehri Dam is a 260.5 m (855 ft) deep stone and earth-filled embankment dam. Its length is 575 m (1,886 ft), crest width 20 m (66 ft), and base width 1,128 m (3,701 ft). The planned hydropower is 1,000 MW along with a further 1,000 MW of pumped storage hydropower. The lower reservoir of the pumped-storage plant is created by the Koteshwar Dam downstream.

The Tehri Dam and the Tehri Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Power Plant are part of the Tehri Hydropower Complex which also contains the 400 MW Koteshwar Dam. Power is distributed to Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Punjab, Delhi, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir, Chandigarh, Rajasthan, and Himachal Pradesh.

The complex will provide irrigation over an area of 270 thousand hectares (670 million acres), stabilizing drainage over 600,000 hectares, and supplying the urban city of Delhi, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand with an imperial availability of 270 million gallons (1,2 million meters) of drinking water per day.

The total project disbursement was 1 billion USD. The Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH), a cost-benefit analysis was commissioned and was concluded that the construction cost of the dam twice the projected benefits.

Environmental issues

The Tehri Dam has been the object of environmental and community protests in the region. D.V. The Anti-Tehri Dam Struggle Committee’s lawyer and founder Saklani quickly pointed to the consequences of the major project.

Sunderlal Bahuguna environmental activist led Anti-Tehri Dam movement from 1980 to 2004. The exception was against the displacement of town inhabitants and the environmental consequence of the weak ecosystem.

In addition to human rights concerns, the plan has spurred concerns about the environmental consequences of building such a massive reservoir in the delicate Himalayan foothills ecosystem.

The structural integrity of the reservoir also has some issues. The Tehri Dam is a big seismic fault area in the Central Himalayan Seismic Zone. This region was the site of a 6.8 magnitude earthquake in October 1991, with an epicenter 53 km (33 mi) from the dam.

Dam proponents claim that the complex is designed to withstand an earthquake of 8.4 magnitudes, but some seismologists say that earthquakes with a magnitude of 8.5 or more could occur in this region. If such a disaster happens, several downstream towns whose population numbers nearly half a million would be overwhelmed by a likely dam collapse.

Since 2005, the Tehri dam was full to a total of 1000 cu ft / s (28 m3/s), which has contributed to Bhagirathi water decrease inflow from the usual 200 cu ft / s (5.7 m3/s). This reduction was crucial to the regional agitation against the project, as the Bhagirathi was believed to belong to the holy Ganges, whose waters are important to Hindu religions.

This reduction was crucial to the regional agitation against the project, as the Bhagirathi was believed to belong to the holy Ganges, whose waters are important to Hindu religions. This has created resentment among many Hindus, who claim that the sanctity of the Ganges has been compromised for the generation of electricity.

Officials say that the flow of the river will again become natural when the lake is loaded to its highest capacity. The Tehri Dam activity continues despite concerns and demonstrations.

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