DAMS IN INDIA
There are 3200 reservoirs and dams in India are constructed in India by the year 2012. In this article, we provide you complete information of dams in India in this Article
First of all, You Must To Know what is a dam So Lets Begin’s
What is a Dam:
The dam is in a barrier constructed In The Path of River, Lake Or Reseviour and raises its Water level, forming a big Water reservoir Which Is Further used to generate electricity or as a water supply.
The water is stored in a very vast reservoir, and on the mouth of the reservoir, a massive wall is constructed which is opened when a large amount of water is stored in the reservoir or when there is a need for water. Thus this was a brief explanation of dams and about their construction.
Why Are Dams Created:
Dams are not created for one purpose, there are many advantages for constructing a dam such as the water stored in dams could be used all over the year for irrigation purposes.
The construction of dams also promote the aquatic life, the dams also help the industries by the water, the water stored in dams also satisfies the consumption of human beings, and the best thing of dams is that they provide a massive opportunity by generating electricity.
There are two primary purposes of creating the dams first to use the collected water, which is distributed respectively. The second purpose is to retain the water and to prevent the proper flow of water in every region. The basic requirements which are fulfilled by the creation of dams are power generation, proper water supply, to stabilize water flow, for irrigation in fields, for flood prevention, for land reclamation, and also for the water diversion
Importance Of Dams:
As we all know that there are many places all over India or all over the world where there is always a lack of water not only for an industrial or irrigational purpose but also for the basic human needs. Thus, if dams are constructed near these areas, then the needs related to water could be satisfied. The main purpose of the construction of dams is to provide water to people for satisfying their basic needs all over the year. There are 36 countries that also not have water to drink. And there is about 23% of the Indian population which is living their life without electricity. Thus the construction of dams could satisfy people in various ways.
Types Of Dams In India:
We had known quite a lot about the dams now it is the time to know about the types which are basically seen in India and all over the world. There are seven types of dams in India which are given as below: –
- Diversion Dam
- Buttress Dam
- Embankment Dam
- Storage Dam
- Detention Dam
- Gravity Dam
1). Diversion Dam:
The role of the diversion dam is easily understood by its name. The diversion dam is a type of dam which is used for diverting the direction of the flow of water. These types of dams are constructed on a particular height, and when the water comes out from the height, it is at quite high speed, and by the direction made in front of the gate, the water turns in that particular direction. These types of dams are used to change the direction of water and supply it to the place where the water is demanded.
2). Buttress Dam:
This type of dam is constructed by making a wall on the mouth of the reservoir, and this wall of a dam is supported by the multiple types of supporters, which are also constructed with the help of the reinforced concrete. And these supporters of the wall are known as buttresses and these buttresses are put alternatively by an even interval. On the basis of the quality and design of the buttress, the buttresses dam in India could be classified into three types: –
a). Multiple Arch Type Buttress Dam
b). Massive Head Type Buttress Dam
c). Deck Type Buttress Dam
These are the three types of Buttress Dams in India
3). Embankment Dam:
The embankment dam is the third type of dam in India. The Embankment dam is quite a large type of dam which is being artificially made by the waste materials of industries, also with the natural raw materials. The wall of this dam is created such that it acts as a semipermeable membrane. Basically, the wall of the dam is either made of earthly material or of the rocks on the basis of the material used in them; they’re classified into two ways: –
a). Earth Filled Embankment Dam
b). Rock Filled Embankment Dam
These are the two types of Embankment dams in India
The cofferdam is a type of dam which is established on a place temporary for the construction of pillars of bridges. This type of dams are constructed by enclosing an area, and then the water of that particular area is pumped out, and when the place gets dry, the work of construction is done there, and then the cofferdam, which was constructed is removed. The cofferdams are basically used for the construction of bridges and other structures to be built within the water.
There are six types of cofferdam in India which are given below: –
a). Earthen Cofferdam
b). Rockfill Cofferdam
c). Single-walled Cofferdam
d). Double-walled Cofferdam
e). Braced Cofferdam
f). Cellular Cofferdam
These were some basic types of Cofferdams in India
5). Storage Dam:
The storage dam is the fifth type of dams in India. Instead of all the things, the Storage dams are the most basic dams in India. The role of storage dams is clear from its name only. In the storage dams, the water is filled by the rain in the rainy season, and then this water is stored in these dams, and then the water stored is supplied to the local area, and when the water is supplied from these dams, hydroelectric power is generated. The water stored is also used for irrigation for the whole year. The storage dam is the most common type of dam in India.
6). Detention Dam:
The detention dams are another kind of dams in India which are specially constructed to control the flood and the destruction caused by it. These dams are constructed to store the excess amount of water and use it by the whole year as per requirements. The water which is retained by rain is gradually released. Commonly these dams are constructed on those places which are in high rain order and are flood affected. These are also commonly used dams in India
7). Gravity Dam:
The gravity dams are massive dams that are constructed in order to store a large amount of water, and this is made that much strong that it could easily resist the pressure of gravity and which is applied by the water on the walls of the dam. This dam is constructed with the help of quite a thick layer of the reinforced concrete, and this makes a gravity dam more stable than any other type of dam. The construction of a gravity dam is such strong that they remain unaffected by earthquakes.
These are some of the main types of dams in India. The types of dams given above could be seen easily in India because these are the most common types of dams in India. There are many advantages of establishing dams as they are very useful as the conservation of water is very necessary for domestic use, for industrial purposes, and also for the generation of hydroelectric power.
10 Largest Dams In India:
There are about 3200+ dams in India according to an analysis done in 2017. Among those 3200 dams, these are the ten largest dams in India. The ten largest dams of India are given below: –
1). Tehri Dam (Uttarakhand)
2). Bhakra Nangal Dam (Himachal Pradesh)
3). Sardar Sarovar Dam (Gujarat)
4). Hirakud Dam (Odisha)
5). Nagarjuna Sagar Dam (Telangana)
6). Koyna Dam (Maharashtra)
7). Indira Sagar Dam (Madhya Pradesh)
8). Rihand Dam (Uttar Pradesh)
9). Mettur Dam (Tamil Nadu)
10). Krishna Sagar Dam (Karnataka)
1). Tehri Dam:
Tehri Dam is the largest dam in India, and it is the 8th largest dam in the world. This dam is constructed on the Bhagirathi River. It is an embankment dam. The reservoir of this dam is distributed in 2,00,000 acre-feet. It is 260m high, its length is 575m, and it is 1128m wide. The hydro capacity of this dam is 1000MW. Tehri dam was built in the year 2006.
2). Bhakra Nangal Dam:
Bhakra Nangal Dam is a type of concrete gravity dam. The Bhakra Nangal Dam is constructed on the Satluj River in Himachal Pradesh. It is the second-largest dam in India. The reservoir of Bhakra Nangal Dam is 7,501,775 acre-feet. It is 225m high; its length is 520m. It is not only the second-largest dam in India but also of Asia. This dam was restricted for visitors for some safety purposes in 2009.
3). Sardar Sarovar Dam:
Sardar Sarovar Dam is a storage dam that was built to supply water to the drought-prone area all over the year. The Sardar Sarovar Dam is constructed over the Narmada River. This dam was built under the supervision of first Deputy Prime Minister Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel. Thus it was named Sardar Sarovar Dam. About four crore people around this dam get drinking water from this dam. The capacity of the reservoir of this dam is 7,701,775 acre-feet.
4). Hirakud Dam:
Hirakud Dam is also a type of Storage Dam. It is the longest dam in the world with a length of 26 km, and its height is 61 meters. The Hirakud Dam is constructed over the Mahanadi River. This dam has two observation towers, ‘Gandhi Minar’ and ‘Nehru Minar.’ The Hirakud dam has a 55 km wide reservoir. The Hirakud Dam is used for many purposes as for flood control, for irrigation purposes, for human requirements, and also for power generation.
5). Nagarjuna Sagar Dam
Nagarjuna Sagar Dam is the largest masonry dam of the world.it is a type of buttress dam. It is 124meteres high. It is constructed on the Krishna River in Telangana. It is the largest manmade lake in the world. It is 1.6 km long. There are 26 gates in Nagarjuna Sagar Dam.
6). Koyna Dam
The Koyna Dam is also a type of storage dams. The Koyna Dam is constructed over the Koyna River. The Koyna Dam is situated in Maharashtra. Koyna Dam is the largest dam in India, which regulates the water supply in the housing area. Koyna Dam also generates electricity, and its height is 103meteres. The electricity production capacity of the Koyna dam is 1920W.
7). Indira Sagar Dam
Indira Sagar Dam is a type of concrete gravity dam. This dam is constructed in Madhya Pradesh. The height of the Indira Sagar Dam is 92 meters. The Indira Sagar Dam is constructed over the Narmada River. The capacity of this reservoir is the largest in our country of 7,904,454 acre-feet. The capacity of the electricity production of Indira Sagar Dam is 1000MW.
8). Rihand Dam:
As per volume, the Rihand Dam is the biggest dam in India. It is quite an old dam which was built from 1954 to 1962. The Rihand Dam is a type of concrete gravity dam. The Rihand Dam is 91.44meteres high. This dam is situated on the border of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. The capacity of electric production is 300MW. Rihand Dam is also known as Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar Dam.
The Mettur Dam is constructed on the Kaveri River. It is counted in one of the oldest dams as it was constructed in 1934. The Mettur Dam is located in the Salem District of Tamil Nadu. The height of the Mettur Dam is 120 feet. In the area near the Mettur dam, the electricity supplied is produced in the dam. The electricity production of the Mettur Dam is 200MW.
10). Krishna Sagar Dam:
The Krishna Sagar Dam is also built on the Kaveri River, but this dam is located in Karnataka near Mysore instead of Tamil Nadu.the water of this dam is used mainly for irrigation in Vrindavan Garden. It is quite a famous tourist spot in India. The electricity production of Krishna Sagar Dam is much high.
This was a brief description of the top 10 largest Dams in India.